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Breach of Contract In Malaysia

Updated: May 24

            1.         Introduction to Breach of Contract in Malaysia

            2.         What is a Breach of Contract?

            3.         Key Clauses Relevant for Breach of Contract Enforcement

            4.         Legal Framework for Breach of Contract in Malaysia

            5.         What to Do if There is No Written Contract and a Breach Occurs

            6.         Common Causes of Contract Breaches and How ASCO LAW Can Help

            7.         Preparatory Steps Before Enforcing a Contract Due to Breach

            8.         Remedies for Breach of Contract in Malaysia

            9.         Enforcement of Judgments in Breach of Contract Cases

            10.       Role of Legal Firms and Lawyers in Debt Recovery

            11.       Conclusion

 


Breach of contract

Introduction to Breach of Contract in Malaysia

 

In today’s intricate world of business and personal transactions, understanding the concept of a "breach of contract" is crucial for anyone engaged in legally binding agreements. In Malaysia, like in many jurisdictions, a breach of contract represents a failure by one or more parties to fulfill the terms of a contract without lawful excuse. The repercussions of such breaches can be significant, affecting not only businesses' operational capabilities but also individuals' personal obligations.

 

This post is specifically designed for business owners, managers, legal practitioners, and individuals in Malaysia who are involved in drafting, managing, or entering into contracts. Whether you are a small business owner negotiating supply agreements, a consumer entering into service agreements, or a company executive managing large-scale contracts, understanding the dynamics of contract breaches is essential.

 

Given the complexity of contract law and the potential for misunderstandings, it’s vital to grasp not only what constitutes a breach but also the remedies available and the preventive measures one can take. This guide aims to demystify the concept of contract breaches, exploring their types, consequences, and the legal framework governing such situations in Malaysia. By the end of this post, you will have a clearer understanding of how to navigate these legal waters effectively, ensuring you can protect your interests and manage your contractual obligations with greater confidence.

 

What is a Breach of Contract?

 

A breach of contract in legal terms occurs when one party fails to fulfill their part of the agreement as stipulated in the contract, without a legitimate legal excuse. This failure can take various forms and impacts all involved parties differently. Understanding the different types of breaches is crucial for anyone involved in contracts in Malaysia.

 

Types of Breach of Contract


1. Material Breach


This is a serious breach that goes to the very heart of the agreement, rendering the contract irreparably broken. For instance, if a contractor fails to complete a building project by the deadline crucial for the client's business operations, this would constitute a material breach.

 

2. Minor Breach


Also known as a partial breach, this occurs when the breach is less significant and does not destroy the core purpose of the contract. For example, if the contractor completes the project but with some minor specifications not fully met, though the functionality is largely unaffected.

 

3. Anticipatory Breach


This type of breach is recognized when one party indicates in advance that they will not fulfill their contractual duties. An example is a supplier who informs you before the delivery date that they will not be able to provide the goods as agreed.

 

4. Actual Breach


Occurs when one party refuses to completely fulfill their part of the agreement on the due date or performs incompletely. For example, a consultant who ceases to provide services halfway through the agreed period without a justifiable reason.

 

Examples to Illustrate Breaches


To better understand how these breaches might occur, consider the following scenario:

 

Scenario for Material Breach: A construction firm agrees to build a new retail store and have it ready by October 1st, in time for a major shopping season. If the firm fails to complete the construction by this date, the retailer cannot open for the season, significantly impacting their earnings.

 

Scenario for Minor Breach: The same construction firm completes the store on time, but the finish on the flooring is not as specified in the contract. Although not ideal, this does not prevent the retailer from opening the store for the shopping season.

 

Scenario for Anticipatory Breach: A software vendor contracted to deliver a custom software system by the end of the year informs the client in November that they will not be able to complete the software on time due to resource constraints.

 

Scenario for Actual Breach: A caterer is hired for a wedding to provide a specific menu. On the day of the event, the caterer provides a different menu, failing to comply with the agreed terms.

 

Understanding these distinctions is crucial not only for recognizing when a breach has occurred but also for determining the appropriate legal response and potential remedies, which can vary depending on the type of breach and the specifics of the contract involved.

 

Key Clauses Relevant for Breach of Contract Enforcement

 

Understanding specific clauses within a contract is crucial for managing and addressing breaches effectively. Here, we detail these essential clauses, typically identified by standard headings in contracts, which guide both parties in understanding their responsibilities and rights under the agreement.

 

Definition and Obligations Clause

Often titled "Definitions" or "Party Obligations," this clause provides clear definitions of key terms and outlines the responsibilities of each party involved in the contract. The presence of this clause is vital as it sets the foundation for all contractual obligations, ensuring that each party’s duties are explicitly outlined and understood, minimizing the likelihood of disputes arising from ambiguities in contractual language.

 

Performance Standards Clause

Commonly referred to as "Performance Criteria" or "Standards of Performance," this clause specifies the expected standards of delivery for goods or services. It establishes clear benchmarks for quality, timelines, and other measurable parameters that are crucial for assessing whether the obligations under the contract have been met. This clause is particularly important in contracts where the failure to meet specified standards can significantly impact the overall outcome of the agreement.

 

Breach and Notice Requirements Clause

This clause, often found under headings like "Default," "Notice of Breach," and "Cure Period," details the actions or conditions that constitute a breach and outlines the procedures for notifying the breaching party. It typically specifies how notices should be delivered and may offer the breaching party a chance to remedy the breach within a specified period, thus providing an opportunity to resolve issues without immediate recourse to severe legal actions.

 

Remedies Clause

Labeled as "Remedies for Breach" or "Consequences of Breach," the remedies clause delineates the consequences or legal actions that may be taken if a breach occurs. This includes provisions for monetary damages, specific performance, or termination of the contract. It sets out potential outcomes clearly, allowing parties to understand the legal and financial implications of failing to meet contractual obligations.

 

Dispute Resolution Clause

Titles such as "Dispute Resolution," "Arbitration," or "Mediation" denote this clause, which outlines agreed methods for resolving any disputes that arise from the contract. It typically dictates the process for escalating disputes, which might include negotiation, mediation, arbitration, or litigation, and often details the steps each party must follow to seek a resolution, thus providing a structured approach to conflict resolution.

 

Force Majeure Clause

Known as "Force Majeure" or "Act of God," this clause addresses the impact of unforeseen events that prevent one or both parties from fulfilling their contractual duties. It lists specific types of events such as natural disasters, war, or government actions, and describes the relief available to the affected parties, thus protecting them from penalties for non-performance under extraordinary circumstances.

 

Termination Clause

Under headings like "Termination" or "Rights to Terminate," this clause outlines how and under what circumstances the contract may be terminated. It includes requirements for notice, procedures to be followed upon termination, and the responsibilities of each party regarding the conclusion of the contract. This clause is crucial as it provides a clear exit strategy for parties, detailing the legal steps necessary to dissolve the contract relationship cleanly and equitably.


These clauses play critical roles in the framework of a contract, providing a structure that guides the actions of all parties and ensuring clarity in obligations, rights, and remedies. By understanding and properly managing these clauses, parties can effectively mitigate risks associated with contractual breaches and enhance their ability to enforce and defend their contractual rights.

 

Legal Framework for Breach of Contract in Malaysia

 

The Malaysian legal system provides a robust framework designed to address and resolve issues related to breach of contract. This framework not only facilitates the understanding of legal actions available when a breach occurs but also helps prevent disputes through careful contract drafting and clear legal foresight.

 

Key Legislation Governing Contracts


1. Contracts Act 1950


Central to contract law in Malaysia, this act outlines the principles for forming valid contracts, fulfilling contractual obligations, and managing the effects of breaches. It specifies that a party to a contract is entitled to receive compensation from the party in breach for any loss or damage that naturally arose in the usual course of things from such breach.

 

2. Civil Law Act 1956


This act guides the calculation of damages, particularly compensatory damages, which aim to place the injured party in the position they would have been in had the contract been performed as intended.

 

Enforcing Contractual Rights


When a breach is identified, the injured party has several enforcement options:

 

Specific Performance: An order by the court for the party in breach to perform their contractual duties. This remedy is usually reserved for situations where monetary damages would not suffice.

  

Damages: The most common form of remedy, involving monetary compensation for direct and sometimes consequential losses due to the breach.

 

Rescission: Cancellation of the contract, with both parties returned to their pre-contractual positions.

 

Injunction: A court order preventing the breaching party from continuing their detrimental actions.

 

Jurisdiction and Venues for Enforcement


The venue for enforcing contractual rights in Malaysia depends on the nature of the breach and the amount involved:

 

Magistrates’ Courts: Handle claims up to RM 100,000. These courts are often the first point of entry for most breach of contract cases involving smaller sums.

 

Sessions Courts: Deal with claims exceeding RM 100,000 but less than RM 1,000,000. These courts handle more substantial cases, providing a more detailed examination of the issues involved.

 

High Court: Has unlimited jurisdiction over all civil cases, including those involving large sums or significant complexities. The High Court is suited for handling major breach of contract cases, especially those with high-value or intricate legal issues.

 

Practical Application in Malaysian Courts

Malaysian courts typically interpret contract terms based on the plain meaning of the words within the context of the contract as a whole. They assess the specifics of each case, considering the intent of the contract and the consequences of the breach.

 

Case Study Example: In a notable case, a Malaysian court ruled on the late delivery of custom machinery, deemed crucial for the buyer’s production line. The court found that the delay constituted a material breach due to the significant disruption caused to the buyer’s business operations.

 

What to Do if There is No Written Contract and a Breach Occurs

 

Enforcing a contract due to a breach can be more challenging when there is no written agreement. However, oral contracts and implied agreements are still legally binding in many jurisdictions, including Malaysia, provided that they can be proven in court. Here’s what one should do if facing a breach of a non-written contract:

 

Understand the Validity of Oral and Implied Contracts


Even without a written document, an agreement made verbally or implied through the conduct of the parties can constitute a legally enforceable contract. The key elements of a contract, such as offer, acceptance, intention to create legal relations, and consideration, still need to be present.

 

Gather Evidence


Since there is no written contract, gathering evidence becomes crucial:


Witness Testimonies

Anyone who was present during the verbal agreement can provide testimony on the terms and conditions agreed upon.


Written Communications

Emails, text messages, or even social media communications discussing the terms can support the existence and specifics of the contract.


Actions Consistent with Contract Terms

Evidence of any actions taken by either party in fulfillment of the contract terms (like payments made or services provided) can demonstrate the existence and the terms of the contract.

 

Legal Considerations


Statute of Frauds

Understand that some types of contracts must be in writing to be enforceable under the statute of frauds. These typically include agreements related to the sale of real estate, leases lasting longer than a year, or contracts that cannot be performed within one year.


Uncertainty and Unenforceability

If the terms of the verbal agreement are unclear or too vague, it may be deemed unenforceable by a court.

 

Seek Legal Advice

Consulting with a legal professional who specializes in contract law is essential. They can offer advice on the viability of enforcing the oral contract and can assist in initiating legal proceedings if necessary. Legal professionals will also guide on the specific proofs required to establish the contract’s terms and the other party’s breach.

 

Consider Alternative Dispute Resolution

Before proceeding to litigation, consider alternative dispute resolution methods such as mediation or arbitration. These methods can often resolve disputes more amicably and without the costs associated with court proceedings.

 

Prepare for Litigation

If dispute resolution does not achieve a satisfactory outcome, preparing for litigation may be necessary. This involves formalizing all gathered evidence and possibly working closely with legal counsel to develop a strong case to present in court.

 

While enforcing non-written contracts can present challenges, particularly in proving the terms and existence of the agreement, it is possible to claim and recover for breaches of such agreements under the right conditions. Thorough preparation, careful collection of evidence, and competent legal guidance are critical to navigating these situations effectively.

 

 

Common Causes of Contract Breaches and How ASCO LAW Can Help

 

In Malaysia, as in other jurisdictions, several typical scenarios often lead to breaches of contract. Understanding these common causes can help parties to contracts anticipate potential issues and take preventive measures. ASCO LAW provides comprehensive solutions to prevent and address these breaches effectively.

 

1. Misunderstanding the Contract Terms


Misunderstandings arise when parties interpret contract terms differently.

ASCO LAW’s Solution: We ensure clear drafting of contracts with explicit definitions and terms to minimize ambiguities. Our legal experts engage with clients to thoroughly understand their needs and expectations, ensuring all parties have a clear understanding before agreement.

 

2. Inability to Perform Contractual Obligations


Description: Parties may become unable to fulfill their obligations due to unforeseen circumstances.

ASCO LAW’s Solution: Through legal project management, ASCO LAW monitors all phases of contract execution, anticipating and mitigating factors that could impede performance. We also assess the viability of all customers and projects to ensure our clients enter into contracts with capable parties.

 

3. Failure to Deliver on Time


Description: Timing is critical, and missed deadlines can lead to breaches.

ASCO LAW’s Solution: We help clients establish realistic timelines and milestones. Regular check-ins and updates are part of our engagement process, ensuring all parties stay on track or adjustments are made proactively.

 

4. Poor Quality of Goods or Services


Description: Delivery of substandard goods or services can trigger breaches.

ASCO LAW’s Solution: Our legal drafting includes detailed quality standards and testing protocols to ensure compliance. We also assist in setting up independent inspections and audits to uphold these standards.

 

5. Non-Payment

   Description: Financial disputes are common when parties fail to fulfill payment obligations.

ASCO LAW’s Solution: ASCO LAW conducts thorough due diligence before our clients enter into agreements, assessing the financial stability of potential partners. We also structure payment terms clearly in contracts to ensure obligations are unequivocal.

 

6. External Factors


Description: Uncontrollable external events like natural disasters or legal changes can affect contract fulfillment.

ASCO LAW’s Solution: We incorporate force majeure clauses and other contingencies into contracts to address potential external disruptions. This planning helps safeguard our clients' interests under unforeseen circumstances.

 

Legal Implications and Remedies


When breaches occur due to these common issues, the non-breaching party may seek remedies such as damages, specific performance, or rescission. ASCO LAW supports clients through legal proceedings to obtain these remedies, ensuring justice and compensation for any losses incurred.

 

Preventive Measures Facilitated by ASCO LAW


Clear Contractual Terms: ASCO LAW’s meticulous contract drafting prevents misunderstandings.

Regular Reviews: We conduct periodic reviews of our clients' contractual engagements to prevent potential breaches.

Contingency Planning: Our strategic legal advice includes preparing for external impacts that might affect contract performance.

 

 

Preparatory Steps Before Enforcing a Contract Due to Breach

 

Before enforcing a contract due to a breach, it is crucial for the aggrieved party to undertake specific preparatory steps. These steps ensure that the enforcement process is not only justified but also strategically positioned for a successful outcome.

 

Detailed Review of the Contract

Thoroughly reviewing the contract is essential to confirm the exact terms and conditions. This step allows the party to ascertain the specific obligations of each party and the provisions for dealing with breaches, ensuring that any action taken aligns with the contractual agreements.

 

Documentation of the Breach

Gathering and documenting all evidence of the breach is critical. This includes maintaining records of all communications, performance reports, and financial statements that demonstrate the breach. Such documentation builds a robust case that substantiates the claim, providing clear evidence that the terms of the contract were not met.

 

Assessment of Damages

Calculating the financial impact of the breach, including both direct and consequential losses, is necessary. This step determines the amount of compensation needed to restore the injured party to the position they would have been in had the breach not occurred, ensuring the claim is accurately valued.

 

Attempt at Resolution

Before proceeding with more severe measures, reaching out to the breaching party to discuss the breach and seek a resolution or settlement is advisable. This attempt can often resolve the dispute amicably without resorting to litigation, saving time, money, and potentially preserving important business relationships.

 

Legal Consultation

Consulting with a legal firm or a lawyer specializing in contract law is crucial. This professional advice helps in understanding the legality and viability of enforcing the contract and explores all legal options and strategies for recovery.

 

Notice of Intent to Enforce

Sending a formal notice to the breaching party indicating the intent to enforce the contract through legal means if the breach is not remedied is a strategic move. This formal communication highlights the severity of the issue and gives the breaching party one last opportunity to rectify the situation before legal actions are initiated.

 

Preparation for Litigation

Preparing for potential litigation by organizing legal resources and planning strategic moves is a prudent step. This preparation ensures readiness if the dispute escalates to court, minimizing delays and enhancing the chances of securing a favorable outcome.

 

These preparatory steps are crucial for ensuring that all actions taken in response to a breach are based on solid evidence and are legally justified. Moreover, they help in mitigating the risks associated with legal disputes and aim to preserve the integrity and continuity of business operations. With thorough preparation, the process of enforcing a contract becomes more structured, potentially leading to more favorable and quicker resolutions.


Remedies for Breach of Contract in Malaysia

 

When a breach of contract occurs, the affected party in Malaysia has several legal remedies available. These are designed to address the breach and provide compensation or corrective action to the injured party, helping them recover from any damages or enforce the contract as intended.

 

1. Damages

Description: Monetary compensation is the most common remedy for breach of contract. It aims to put the injured party in the position they would have been in if the breach had not occurred.


Types of Damages


Compensatory Damages: Cover the direct losses and costs incurred.

Consequential Damages: Compensate for additional losses that occur as a direct result of the breach.

Nominal Damages: Awarded when the breach occurred but no actual financial loss is proven.

Punitive Damages: Intended to punish wrongful conduct, though they are rare in Malaysian contract law.

 

2. Specific Performance

Description: An order by the court requiring the party in breach to fulfill their contractual duties as originally agreed. This is often sought in cases where monetary compensation is inadequate, such as transactions involving unique goods or services.

 

3. Rescission

Description: This remedy allows the non-breaching party to terminate the contract, effectively nullifying the obligations of all parties involved as if the contract had never existed. Rescission can be coupled with a claim for restitution, which aims to return any benefits that were exchanged under the contract.

 

4. Injunction

Description: A court order that either restrains a party from doing something that would breach the contract or compels actions to prevent a future breach.

 

5. Declaratory Relief

Description: This involves a court judgment that determines the rights of the parties under the contract without ordering any specific action or awarding damages. It is particularly useful for clarifying legal obligations or rights under a contract, providing certainty for future conduct.

 

Legal Support Throughout the Process


Our legal team provides comprehensive support throughout the breach of contract remedy process. From the initial assessment of the breach and the drafting of legal documents to negotiation, litigation, and the enforcement of court orders, we ensure that every legal step is meticulously handled. Our aim is to offer strategic legal planning and representation, which are essential in effectively resolving contract disputes and safeguarding our clients' interests.

 

Understanding the available remedies and effective legal support are crucial for effectively managing and resolving breaches of contract. With thorough preparation and professional guidance, parties can navigate these challenges more confidently and ensure that their rights and interests are protected.

 

Enforcement of Judgments in Breach of Contract Cases

 

After securing a judgment in a breach of contract case, the effective enforcement of that judgment is crucial. In Malaysia, there are several mechanisms available to ensure compliance and facilitate the recovery process according to the court's decision. Selecting the appropriate enforcement method requires a careful assessment of various factors related to the debtor's financial situation and asset profile.

 

Key Considerations Before Selecting an Enforcement Method

Before selecting an enforcement method, it's essential to ascertain:

Debtor's Asset Profile: Understanding what assets the debtor owns, including real estate, vehicles, investments, or other valuable items that can be seized or charged.

Debtor's Income and Employment Status: Assessing whether the debtor has a stable income or employment that can be subject to garnishment.

Existence of Other Creditors: Identifying if there are other creditors with claims on the debtor’s assets, which can affect the priority and feasibility of certain enforcement actions.

Debtor's Location and Jurisdiction: Confirming the location of the debtor's assets and whether they fall within the local jurisdiction for enforcement.

Legal and Practical Implications: Considering the cost, time, and likelihood of success associated with each enforcement method to ensure that the approach is economically viable.

 

Enforcement Methods

 

1. Writ of Seizure and Sale

   Application: Used when the debtor has tangible assets that can be easily sold. This method is straightforward if the assets are already identified and not subject to disputes with other creditors.

 

2. Garnishment

   Application: Effective when the debtor has receivables from third parties or significant funds in bank accounts. Requires confirmation that third parties owe money to the debtor and are within the court's jurisdiction.

 

3. Bankruptcy Proceedings

   Application: Appropriate for substantial debts where other enforcement methods have failed. This process is complex and time-consuming, suitable when the debtor’s financial recovery is unlikely through simpler means.

 

4. Charging Order

   Application: Best suited for debtors with significant property or investment assets. This method does not provide immediate funds but secures the creditor’s interest in the long term.

 

5. Committal Proceedings

   Application: Considered when there is clear evidence that the debtor has the means to pay but refuses to do so. This method is severe and used as a last resort to compel compliance.

 

Navigating Legal Enforcement

 

Choosing the right enforcement method involves strategic legal analysis and planning. It is essential to align the method with the specific circumstances of the case and the debtor’s profile to maximize recovery efficiently. Ongoing legal support is crucial, as it helps handle any arising disputes, ensures compliance with legal procedures, and addresses challenges effectively.

 

Enforcement actions must be conducted within the legal framework to minimize risks and ensure that the process is smooth and just. Legal expertise is invaluable in navigating these complexities, ensuring that actions are both effective and legally sound.

 

Role of Legal Firms and Lawyers in Debt Recovery

 

Legal firms and lawyers play a crucial role in the debt recovery process, especially when it comes to managing complex cases that involve breach of contract. Their expertise is essential in navigating the legal landscape, ensuring that the rights of creditors are protected and that the enforcement of judgments is executed proficiently.

 

Expertise in Contract Law

Legal professionals offer deep knowledge of contract law which is critical in interpreting agreements and identifying breaches. Their expertise ensures that contracts are scrutinized for compliance and any potential legal pitfalls are identified early.

 

Drafting and Reviewing Contracts

Lawyers ensure that contracts are drafted with precise language that minimizes ambiguity and potential disputes. Regular reviews of contracts also help in updating terms to comply with current laws and best practices, reducing the likelihood of breaches.

 

Managing Legal Proceedings

From filing a lawsuit to representing clients in court, legal professionals handle all aspects of legal proceedings. They manage the documentation, evidence gathering, and provide robust representation in court, advocating for their client's best interests.

 

Negotiation Skills

Lawyers are skilled negotiators who can engage with the opposing party to reach settlements that are favorable yet fair. This skill is particularly valuable in resolving disputes before they escalate to more costly and time-consuming litigation.

 

Enforcement of Judgments

Once a judgment is obtained, lawyers coordinate the enforcement process. They choose the most appropriate enforcement method based on a thorough analysis of the debtor’s assets and financial status, as discussed earlier. Legal professionals ensure that the enforcement actions are not only effective but also compliant with legal standards.

 

Continuous Legal Support

Legal firms provide ongoing support throughout the debt recovery process. They advise on legal rights and options, help modify strategies as cases evolve, and ensure that all actions are in line with the latest legal developments.

 

Educational Role

Beyond direct legal services, lawyers often educate their clients on best practices for risk management in contracts and debt recovery. This proactive approach helps businesses understand the importance of well-structured contracts and effective debt management strategies.

 

The role of legal professionals in the context of breach of contract and debt recovery cannot be overstated. Their expertise not only ensures the effective enforcement of contracts and judgments but also provides a safeguard against potential legal challenges. Businesses and individuals benefit significantly from the strategic legal guidance, robust defense, and proactive risk management provided by experienced lawyers and legal firms.

 

With the right legal support, navigating the complexities of debt recovery becomes more manageable, ensuring that parties recover what is rightfully owed to them while maintaining compliance with legal standards.


Conclusion


Understanding the intricacies of breach of contract is essential for anyone involved in drafting, managing, or executing contracts in Malaysia. This post has explored the various aspects of breaches, from understanding the types and consequences to navigating the legal landscape and enforcement mechanisms. We've delved into the different types of breaches, key contractual clauses, and the legal framework that underpins contract law in Malaysia, providing a comprehensive guide for business owners, legal practitioners, and individuals.


For those facing a breach of contract, whether it involves a written or oral agreement, knowing the steps to take—from gathering evidence and seeking legal advice to potentially engaging in litigation—is crucial. This knowledge not only helps in effectively managing breaches when they occur but also in implementing preventive measures to avoid future disputes.


ASCO LAW is dedicated to assisting clients through the complexities of contract breaches. Our expertise in contract law, combined with proactive legal services, ensures that our clients can navigate these challenges confidently. We provide strategic advice, draft robust contracts, and represent our clients in negotiations and court proceedings, aiming to achieve the best possible outcomes.


In conclusion, while breaches of contract can be challenging, having a strong understanding of your legal rights, the responsibilities defined within your contracts, and the remedies available can significantly mitigate the risks and damages. Whether you're drafting a new contract or dealing with a breach, consider seeking professional legal support to safeguard your interests and maintain the integrity of your contractual relationships.

 

 

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NOTICE

The contents of this publication, current at the date of publication set out above, are for reference purposes only. They do not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. Specific legal advice about your specific circumstances should always be sought separately before taking any action based on this publication.

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